Vaccine Development Worldwide Research New Coronavirus May 23 18:41
In the United States and the United Kingdom, research institutes and pharmaceutical companies are working together to develop a mass production system for vaccines for the new coronavirus, and the movement toward early supply is accelerating.
According to the World Health Organization, there are currently more than 100 types of vaccines for the new coronavirus in the world, and at least 10 of these types have been studied to confirm the safety and efficacy of the vaccine.
Among these, the vaccine, which is being developed by the American pharmaceutical company Modelna and the NIH-National Institutes of Health, has begun a first-stage clinical trial to confirm safety, and has also been approved to advance to the second stage of checking the amount and effectiveness of the vaccine.
In July, we are expected to move on to the final stages of clinical trials to confirm the effects of inoculation to more people.
The U.S. government has provided huge amounts of funding to develop the vaccine, and the FDA has announced a policy of early approval, and the U.S. government has announced plans to develop a mass production system both at home and abroad in parallel with the development.
Meanwhile, the vaccine, which is being developed by Oxford University in the UK with the support of the British government, is expected to enter the final stages of development in the summer, with a clinical trial of 1,000 people starting last month.
AstraZeneca, a British-based pharmaceutical giant with a partnership with Oxford University, announced that it was ready to start supplying the vaccine in September.
According to the announcement, AstraZeneca said it would be able to produce 1 billion times over the next year, and that it plans to start supplying at least 100 million times in September. Of these, 100 million times will be supplied to the UK.
AstraZeneca has received more than $1 billion (more than 107 billion yen) in support from the Us Department of Biomedical Research and Development, and British media have reported that about 300 million times will be supplied to the United States.
On the other hand, the results of clinical trials have not yet been produced, and AstraZeneca says development may not work.
It is unusual for a mass production system to be developed at a stage where the effectiveness of vaccines has not yet been proven, and as the epidemic continues to grow, it is expected that vaccines will be supplied quickly, the burden on the health care system will be reduced, and the impact on the economy will be minimized.
While there are concerns about the development of vaccines for the new coronavirus, astrazeneca and other countries are working with who and others to ensure that vaccines are passed on to the world fairly.
Early practical use, some people question
On the other hand, in the development of vaccines, it is necessary to carefully check the safety of whether there is a serious side reaction, and some experts have questioned the early practical application.
If the vaccine is successfully developed, the order in which it is supplied is also an important issue.
Through the Department of Advanced Biomedical Research and Development, the U.S. government provides more than 100 billion yen in funding to companies such as Modelna, Johnson & Johnson, AstraZeneca, and Sanofi to support development and production systems.
In an interview with the associated press, the CEO of French pharmaceutical giant Sanofi said in an interview with the associated press that “the United States has the right to pre-order the most”, citing funding from the Institute of Advanced Biomedical Research and Development, and the french government’s fierce backlash against “equal access to vaccines is not giving up”, and there is also a fierce dispute between nations with the protection of vaccines in mind.
The WHO’s general meeting, which closed this week, also adopted a resolution aimed at limiting vaccine patents and allowing developing countries to supply vaccines at a lower cost, but the United States did not approve the resolution, saying it would “send the wrong message to pharmaceutical companies under development.”
While the resolution is not enforceable, it remains unclear how vaccines will be supplied to developing countries that are difficult to prevent the spread of the infection, as the effects on the economy become more severe due to the prolonged outbreak.
Domestic clinical trials are expected to begin this summer
In Japan, major pharmaceutical companies, venture companies, and research institutes such as universities are working on the development, and this week it was decided that the government would subsidize more than 7 billion yen in total for research led by four research companies led by pharmaceutical companies and research institutes such as universities.
Clinical trials are expected to begin in Japan and even in the summer as early as the month.
Vaccines have traditionally been manufactured in a way that eliminates toxicity or weakens pathogens such as viruses using chicken eggs and animal cells, but in order to use the virus itself, it is necessary to repeat experiments in facilities with high levels of safety facilities, and it is said that it takes time to increase the production of vaccines because it takes time to increase the production of the vaccine.
For this reason, the development of vaccines using new coronaviruses using new technologies that use some of the virus’s genes, which are relatively easy to increase, and proteins called artificially made “antigens” to trigger immune responses, are also being developed in an effort to reduce the time it takes to develop the new coronavirus.
In Japan, Osaka’s bioventure company Angers, a bioventure company based on research from Osaka University, is developing vaccines by incorporating a portion of the genes of the new coronavirus into a special DNA called “plasmid” and cultured it.
We are investigating whether animal experiments can adequately contain safety and antibodies against viruses, and we plan to conduct clinical trials to confirm safety and efficacy by actually administering them to people from July, and we are aiming for practical use next spring.
In addition, pharmaceutical giant Shionoyoshi Pharmaceutical is working with the National Institute of Infectious Diseases to develop vaccines by using genetic allying technology to produce the same forms of protein on the surface of the new coronavirus.
In order to begin clinical trials to be administered to people by the end of the year, we are coordinating with the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and others, and we will strengthen our system for mass production so that we can provide it to 10 million people from next year onwards.
In addition, ID Pharma, a bioventure company headquartered in Tokyo, is working with the National Institute of Infectious Diseases and research institutes at universities in Shanghai to develop vaccines that send some of the genes of the new coronavirus using a special virus called vectors.
A previous study with a research institute in Shanghai said it plans to start animal testing next month and hopes to begin clinical trials to be administered to people next year.
In addition, km biologics in Kumamoto City are developing vaccines that eliminate the toxicity of viruses, and vaccines that have weakened the toxicity of viruses at the University of Tokyo.
Experts: “At least a year to inoculation”
Regarding the prospect of the development of a vaccine for the new coronavirus, Tetsuo Nakayama, a specially appointed professor at Kitasato University who is familiar with vaccines, said, “Vaccines currently under development have not yet been shown to be effective in people. Depending on the results of future clinical trials, it will take at least a year for them to be vaccinated.”
On top of that, the development of new types of vaccines, such as the DNA vaccine, which uses some of the virus’s genes to trigger immune responses, is underway, and “vaccines using new technologies have the advantage of quickmass production, and are being developed around the world. However, vaccines are intended for healthy people, and in addition to effectiveness, safety assessments are also very important. We need to rush to develop it, but sometimes it’s only when you use it to people that we can see it, so we have to evaluate it carefully.”
In addition, Prof. Nakayama said, “Even if a good vaccine is made in a foreign country, it is not possible to import it easily. It is also important for Japanese people to be able to produce vaccines in Japan because they may have different reactions to vaccines.”