Academic institutions in Europe and the United States are independent of the government The difference from Japan is October 12 at 9:39 p.m.
Like the Science Council of Japan, academic institutions in Europe and the United States where scientists make recommendations to the government are operated as independent institutions.
Academic institutions in the United States
The American Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 in the course of the Civil War by then-President Lincoln as an organization that provided professional scientific and technical advice to governments and the like.
A non-profit organization independent of the government, commissioned by the federal government, Congress, and other organizations, the American Academy of Engineering and the American Academy of Medicine, together with the American Academy of Engineering and the American Academy of Medicine, now have more than 7000 members of scientists and engineers working together without compensation to provide policy recommendations and advice on a wide range of scientific and technical policy issues in 2019.
According to the website, the financial resources are approximately 200 million dollars from the federal government, more than 21 billion yen in Japanese yen, and about 55 million dollars from the private sector, etc., according to the website, such as subsidies, the consideration paid when giving advice, and donations.
The American Academy of Sciences is recognized internationally as one of the world’s leading academic organizations, with approximately 190 of its approximately 2,900 members winning the Nobel Prize, publishing a highly regarded scientific journal, the American Academy of Sciences Bulletin, in which researchers from around the world compete to present their research results.
Academic institutions in the United Kingdom
Britain is home to the Royal Society, the world’s most traditional academic institution, and was founded in 1660 with approval from the then King Charles II.
In 1703, Newton, who discovered the law of universal gravity, served as chairman.
Since its establishment, its name has become “Royal”, but it is active as a private non-governmental organization, and the website says on the first page, “We are an independent academy of sciences that contributes to the development of science for humanity.”
Of the approximately 1600 members, about 70 are Nobel laureates who make policy recommendations on science and technology by receiving requests from the government, Congress, and other organizations.
In 2018, we have earned an annual income of 98.3 million pounds to approximately 13.5 billion yen, including government grants, fund income, and donations.
According to Hiroshi Nagano, a special fellow at the Research and Development Strategy Center of the Japan Science and Technology Agency, who is familiar with the trends of overseas academic institutions, it is rare that most academic institutions in developed countries, such as the American Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society, are private organizations, established as government agencies, such as the Science Council of Japan, and are fully covered and operated at national expense.
The Science Council of Japan
The budget of the Science Council of Japan is about 1 billion yen per year, which is significantly less than that of academic institutions in Europe and the United States.
In addition, the Science Council of Japan has 210 members and approximately 2000 collaboration members, and the term of office is six years, and while half of the members are replaced every three years, the majority of countries adopt a lifetime system.
In addition, academic institutions in each country make proposals to Congress with relationships, such as working and receiving requests, but in the case of the Science Council of Japan, since it is under the control of the Prime Minister and is a government agency under the provisions of the law, it is pointed out that the relationship with the Diet is thin and “politicians are not in a system to listen widely to the opinions of scientists.”
“In developed countries, academic organizations are formed spontaneously and exist as independent of the government as science improves its position in society. Although there are differences in the history of the establishment and the form of the organization, the Independence of the Science Council of Japan should also be secured under the Science Council of Japan Act, and the government needs to explain the reasons for not appointing a candidate for membership.”